## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

I am doing Prof.Nagendra Krishna Pura’s Basics electrical circuits course provided by NPTEL. In week 6, I learnt about maximum power transfer theorem.

states that – A resistive load, being connected to a DC network, receives maximum power when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance known as (Thevenin’s equivalent resistance) of the source network as seen from the load terminals. The Maximum Power Transfer theorem is used to find the load resistance for which there would be the maximum amount of power transfer from the source to the load.

To verify this theorem, I have taken Vth as 10V and Rth as 5K ohms connected in series with the load resistance RL. Now I am varying the RL to get the maximum power

For doing this I have written a python program and plotted the graph power(mW) vs RL(Kohms)

# Maximum power transfer thorem using pyplot

from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

Rth = 5e3

Vth = 10

RL = [x*1e3 for x in range(21) if x >0]

Vth_across_RL = [res/(Rth+res) for res in RL ]

I = [Vth*1e3/(Rth+res) for res in RL]

def power(Vtholtage_list,current_list):

power_list = []

for i in range(len(Vtholtage_list)):

p = Vtholtage_list[i]*current_list[i]

power_list.append(p)

return power_list

#print(power(Vth_across_RL, I))

power_list =[x*1e3  for x in power(Vth_across_RL, I)]

RL_kohms = [x/1e3 for x in RL]

plt.plot(RL_kohms,power_list)

plt.xlabel(“Resistance in Kohms”)

plt.ylabel(“Power in mW”)

plt.show()

From the graph I observed that when the load resistance (RL) is equal to the Thevenin resistance (Rth) of the circuits then I able to draw the maximum power from the source.

## Nudging courtship with life

~Punithan & Poovendiran

“ A choice architect has the responsibility for organising the context in which people make decisions” – Richard H. Thaler, Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness.

In general, Nudging is a choice architecture which is a positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to make a choice or course of action. The idea of Nudging is all about applying the concepts of decision making and behavioural economics to yield a better and spontaneous decision, without limiting the choice. Putting it more straightforwardly, Nudging is helping people in making better choices for oneself without restricting their freedom of choice.

You can nudge for GOOD, or you can nudge for EVIL. Nudging not only contributes to the business world but also for the wellness of the society. Nudging helps to influence and direct people in the right way as we discuss two topics and examples here.

Social Nudging is the concept of positioning our direction of a nudge for a social cause. When you nudge a person, and if his choice contributes something to society, then it falls under this category. Recently, a 90 years old man was in the limelight on social media. The chat waala opens his ‘Bhaba ka Dhaba’ stall early in the morning and closes it by 5:30 in the evening, finishing all his stock. But during this pandemic, he couldn’t make ends meet. A famous food blogger got concerned about the older man’s dire situation. The food blogger recorded a video of the older man (she fondly calls her Uncle Ji) and posted it on her social handle. Fortunately, many people stepped up to show their support for Uncle Ji. Many celebrities also posted on their social handles. We can see both the food blogger and the stars have nudged the society to contribute something for someone’s good.

Nudging can be a handy tool in teaching — a hard lesson in the right way. A famous incident became viral on social media. As the incident goes, a teacher intentionally wrote a wrong equation on the blackboard. Students started to laugh at the teacher’s mistake. Then, the teacher explained the reason behind it, “You students did not appreciate me when I wrote the correct ones, but you all started to laugh when I made one mistake.” She added “The world is more similar to you; when you do many good things, no one will appreciate you. But when you do one bad thing, people will start to criticise you, and they will forget all the good things you did”. This is behavioural science is related to negativity bias where one tends to have a negativity dominance and tend to emphasise on that. Mistakes are a never-ending part of our life. We should  improve ourselves from those mistakes. The teacher nudged an important message into those students’ minds – to be mindful, determined and confident in their life.

## SET GAME

~Kalai & Sundar

In this project a big challenge for me was handling the objects between two backdrops. Initially I set the flag event for twenty-seven objects. It became an issue with debugging. After that I was aware that to use minimal amount of flag event. The second issue was, to hide the object using the broadcast event, it hid all the other objects and I was not able to proceed further. Then I learnt how to show and hide the object using the local variable between two backdrops. The next issue was while moving the object from one page to another it went behind the circle, from this I had learnt about the usage of (go to front and back layer) block in Looks. After fixing these issues I felt happy. Sanjeev helped me whenever I was struck.

From this project I have learnt about
how and when to use conditional blocks like if, repeat, forever, and wait.
how to apply local and global variable.
how to make a list and assign the list values to the variable.
how to set the mouse position.
how scratch compares the variable and gives the result.
how to use the flag event.
Show and hide the sprite between two background using the variable.
how to avoid repetitions of the code and make it simple

This game works based on the set theory.
It contains three different sets represented as Venn circles (shape, Inside color, outside color) and twenty-seven objects.
You select the object based on their inside color, border color and shape and place it on the Venn diagram.
The object moves to the mouse track.
Press space key for positioning the object on the circle.
If you place the object in the correct position it tells correct and stay in the circle, if it is wrong, it back to its position.
If you win this game, it will switch to home page.

## INCORPORATING ARTS WITH STEM; THE AI(ART INTEGRATED) STREAM LEARNING

~Sunil & Abilash

Integrating Science, Technology, Research, Engineering, Art, and Math to create holistic learning is called STREAM education. The Art Integrated (AI) education includes both visual arts (paintings, clay modelling, gaming) and performing arts (music, dance, drama).  It’s very important to incorporate kids in all of these five disciplines. If we seed these skills in our kids, it improves their practical thinking. Integrating art and science in education could increase their creative thinking and cognitive ability. It also encourages students to express science in unimaginable ways. AI-based education paves the path for experiential learning. Some of the activities to incorporate art with science are

1. PENDULUM PAINTING

Pendulum painting is a fun activity to do with students using simple materials like water bottles, paper, paint, rope and chairs. This activity enhances creative and critical thinking among students. It will make them understand parameters like gravity, motion, momentum, and velocity. Students would be able to create a beautiful art along with conducting a pendulum experiment to know the physics behind the pendulum by practical approach.

2. PERIODIC TABLE SONG

Teaching Periodic Table songs to kids is one of the best ways to make chemistry enjoyable. Songs have always been the best ways to remember even the most convoluted set of words at ease. The periodic table song with a supporting video that has a picture of the applications of some aspects along with music, would enable students to remember the elements of the periodic table along with applications. These kinds of activity aid both the right and left brain to store accurate information and retain it.

3. ART FROM WASTE IN SCIENCE

Plastic Pollution has become a significant concern in today’s world. This activity of making simple electronic devices like a LED torch using plastic wastes would make students learn simple electronics along with hands-on training. Making art out of garbage would enhance creativity and positive thinking in students and also would create awareness about plastic pollution.

There are no limits in education and imagination; we can use our creativity to incorporate any form of art with any science concept to bring out the best in education. Other activities like dancing or acting in a theatrical play relating science or math concepts, could cultivate expression, self-confidence, presentation skill along with understanding STEM.