US Election Model

~Sharat Kumar & Vasanth

The power of predictive modelling and Machine Learning in particular. We had an opportunity to put it to test, by working on the prediction of the US election, a couple of weeks prior to the US Presidential Election. WE approached this using supervised learning. First, we considered two states of America, Texas (Republican/healthy Red state) and California (Democratic/ strong Blue state). We scraped around 10000 tweets for 5 Days from twitter for both the states. We tagged red as Pro-Trump/Anti-Biden and treated Blue as  Pro-Biden/Anti-Trump. 

We selected 100 top Fans of Biden and Trump across the US, and we scraped tweets relevant to US elections from those handles for one day. We trained a model using those tagged data into an AI machine. After training, the tool considers 70% of the data to train and the rest 30% for validation and testing. During the process, a confusion matrix is formed. A confusion matrix is a table describing the performance of a classification model (or “classifier”) on a set of test data for which the correct values are known. 

This table shows how often the model classified each label correctly (in blue), and which labels were most often confused for that label (in grey). 

We created two models out of them, in one model, when we feed an individual’s tweet history into the machine, it will identify whether the person is a Trump/Biden fan. Another model is when we provide the Twitter data of a particular state; the model predicts who has more support in that state. We used the second model, and we fed the twitter data of 11 swing states in the US. 

States Red Blue Predicted Result Actual Result
Concord (New Hampshire) 36.48% 63.52% Blue Blue
Florida 47.29% 52.71% Blue Red
Iowa 51.01% 48.99% Red Red
Michigan 31.34% 68.66% Blue Blue
Minnesota 43.79% 56.21% Blue Blue
Nevada 37.22% 62.78% Blue Blue
Ohio 42.32% 57.68% Blue Red
Pennsylvania 43.18% 56.82% Blue Blue
Raleigh (North Carolina) 46.27% 53.73% Blue Red
Virginia 44.80% 55.20% Blue Blue
Wisconsin 43.01% 56.99% Blue Blue

In 8 states among the 11, we predicted the right result. We got an accuracy of 72.72% as our result. 

This gave a first hand experience of the power of AI and Machine learning. While these tools can be used to predict and prescribe inputs for various business decisions it can also be an effective platform for addressing several complex societal problems. We are excited to engage and learn more on the underlying capabilities these new age platforms offer.

 

International webinar on Digital divide

 

~ Poovizhi.P

I’ve got an opportunity to speak in an international webinar organized by Dr. Monica Sharma on the topic digital divide. Below is the link to a 6 min video of the speech. It was a great experience to be part an international webinar. I learnt that where ever I may be and whatever work I do, I am connected with each one of us in the world in breaking the unhealthy isms from being in my inner capacity.

Here is what I shared.

In my experience one digital divide is employment. People who have completed Engineering in and around my village have hard time finding engineering jobs. Some of my engineering classmates, specifically girls have got married, others work in non-engineering jobs like receptionist, data entry and teaching.

This is partly because of lack of practical skills. Even in college where I was doing a degree in computer science we had limited access to few shared computers. It was enough to read text books and pass exams. Most of us didn’t have access to laptops and internet at home to explore further. After 4 years I had a degree but not much programming skills.

At STEM land I learned programming first with a visual programming language from children and then professional programming languages. When I was learning programming from children, no one made fun of me. In time I realized that a supportive environment for learning had been built at STEM land not only by the facilitators, but also the children who also practice the RTL tools. I see such a culture of supporting risk takers shifting mediocracy to excellence.

STEM lands are located in rural schools. Even with poor internet children are able to share the projects and programs they make with other children through a local area network. Through this I see the shift from being stuck without resources to having the courage to create alternatives.

There is digital divide in rural area due to the socio- economic background and very few people have access to computers, laptops and tabs. Many people have access to smart phones but internet is an issue. They have limited internet because the tower is not close or may not be able to afford internet. In the pandemic this got worse because people are earning less. To reach children in this time we send practice assignments and give feedback through Whatsapp. For those who don’t have access to internet I create physical worksheets that parents pick up or met children individually at home.

I can see that genderism is strengthened by society in technology. After certain age girls have a lot of constraints in my society. For example, boys have the freedom to come to STEM land in the evenings after school whereas girls do not. One issue is safety due to alcoholism, gangs and harassments in the evening, but much of it is social pressure. In response sleepovers where both boys and girls stay over at the school once a week has become a norm at least in one of our schools.

I wanted children from other villages and schools to also benefit from STEM land in the evenings. I faced the same constraints and fear of traveling, but I don’t want to leave it just because I am born as girl. I go to such a center and support children and take precautions that I can.

In my village alcoholism is a major issue and many children and women suffer as the men beat their wife and children and they don’t have a quiet space at home to study. The youth planned a play to bring awareness about alcoholism but none of girls participated because it is not considered socially ok. I had a fear of judgment but I noticed it and being in my values I took part. This action inspired four other girls and a married women. This has started many new conversations about alcoholism.

As a team in STEM land we look to break these isms in technology. When I joined STEM land three years ago there was only one female engineer. The women to men ratio was 1:6 and now in the technical team its getting closer to an equal ratio.

To break the digital divide

1. I need to develop an environment for youth and children to develop skills

2. I need to be more than an engineer to break genderism, groupism, alcoholism, ageism

3. I need to work from responsibility, equality and courage to create.

Choice Architecture: Nudging students to make better choices

~Aravindh & Sunil

Choice architecture is a method to extend multiple choices to individuals and giving them liberty in choosing an option coherently. In Choice architecture, consumer behaviour is taken into consideration while designing the alternatives and represented in a way that individuals select the option that is more aligned to  the provider. In schools, choice architecture is an excellent way to improve students’ physical and mental well being. Healthy habits can be nurtured in children using Choice architecture.

In one of the outreach schools in Auroville,  around 4 in 10 students were anaemic. Students eschewed nutritious snack and preferred tasty snack. In this case, children are often under a familiarity bias. A familiarity bias is when one decides to stay within their comfort zone. In this case, children portray absurdity heuristics; they tend to put away the nutritious food. They didn’t want to consume healthy food separately. To overcome this, the facilitators came up with a brilliant idea to blend drumstick leaves, dates, and peanuts (which are rich in iron) with porridge to keep the taste balanced with nutrition. After that, students preferred this snack and started to consume without any excuses. This nutritious mix meal resulted in a significant improvement in their health. 

The core driver behind this action is that the mere thought of eating food reminds us of how we feel when we eat it. Digestion starts with sight and smell. Instead of giving nutritious food separately, we can blend both nutritional and non-nutritional elements in the lunch meal. Children usually default to choices which are suitable to their taste and tend to take smaller portions that are easy for them to digest. By disguising nutritious food as per their preferred taste and size, we can nudge them to have a healthy meal.

Math Learning from Sundaram Sir

~Saranya

We have learnt the following topics and few techniques, puzzle(ken-ken) also learnt new information like Kaprekar constant, Collatz conjecture in excel. September 11(world trade centre hijacked)  etc…

S.No Topic Link
1 Place value (i) part 1: https://youtu.be/wXG1F5nyLyY

(ii) part 2:  https://youtu.be/ySa-8k5UnZc

(ii) part 3: https://youtu.be/t_tN0s4gnhI

2 Place Value real life examples https://youtu.be/HEgijGQABEw

 

3 Addition stories https://youtu.be/B0i-AFqh3l4

 

4 Word problem(Add-2 types, Sub-4 types) https://youtu.be/jV5-Pa2C73E
5 Word problem(Add-2 types, Sub-4 types, and division -2types) https://youtu.be/gOszHLHMgKI
6  Equal sharing along with multiplication https://youtu.be/kERMsSkW6pE
7 Ratio https://youtu.be/h5SV_uPpCrA
8 Difference between history and concepts

 

Geometry

 

Ken-ken(sudoku)

(i) part 1: https://youtu.be/qJS0R_xBDvU

(ii) part 2: https://youtu.be/f4HbQM3qma8

(ii) part 3:  https://youtu.be/tCuZMkZ9yds

9 Geometry(triangles(scalene), parallelogram, rhombus) https://youtu.be/k7dOko_vZEk
10 Word problem https://youtu.be/QMBqxF1BHaE
11 The surface area along with examples

Fraction

https://youtu.be/-F-8pN4MAyM
12 Fraction Addition and subtraction

Comparison of fraction

Stories for fraction

https://youtu.be/nTrfFKgWkYU
13 Fraction rule

Fraction stories

 

https://youtu.be/7_BKXGwHijg
14 Angles, angular distance, linear distance

Types of angles

 

https://youtu.be/mWylO7CvI-E
15 Sets square – draw angles using sets square https://youtu.be/aCVnOvK6YJI
16 Types of Angles chart/family tree https://youtu.be/0SxEwisQnL4

 

 

C3STREAM Land Designs delivers First IC chip

C3STREAM Land Designs delivers First IC chip:

~Ranjith, Saranya

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip.

One year back, we started learning the VLSI layout and design process with the support of “Aura Semiconductor Pvt Ltd” (Aura is a fabless semiconductor company innovating high-performance IC products for IoT Radios, Timing, and Portable Audio markets).

Over the year we have been involved with automation using SKILL (Lisp-based Cadence programming language) and layout workflow (python, shell scripting, etc), learning layout methodology, and aspects to keep in mind in layout. An example of SKILL code was the automation of a differential pair which is a very common circuit block in analog circuit design.  This process in the last year has got us now only comfortable with the layout, but also the entire cadence flow and supported the group at Aura automate small aspects of their work.

 

We were trained in the layout by our mentor by assigning us small blocks that were used in real designs starting from digital and then analog. After completion of a layout, we got feedback from our mentor on matching, MOS transistors effects like LOD, constraints in floor planning and routing, accounting, or parasitic such as IR drops and capacitance. The time we took for each block also reduced as we worked on more blocks and we could see our progress in not only laying a block but also reduced time in making sure that it satisfied DRC (Design Rule Checker) and LVS (Layout vs schematic). This process of working on real blocks helped us improve our skill, speed, and confidence and gave us exposure to different kinds of blocks.

A couple of months back we were included in a team on an active project with Aura. We were able to complete around 40% of the layout from Auroville. It has opened opportunities for this high-tech work to be done out of Auroville. Currently, and Siva and Vasanthraj Gandhi (who are now part of the team) are being trained by us along with Aura in a similar fashion. Looking forward to layout and in time design many more IC designs.

Example of a top-level chip:

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

I am doing Prof.Nagendra Krishna Pura’s Basics electrical circuits course provided by NPTEL. In week 6, I learnt about maximum power transfer theorem.

states that – A resistive load, being connected to a DC network, receives maximum power when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance known as (Thevenin’s equivalent resistance) of the source network as seen from the load terminals. The Maximum Power Transfer theorem is used to find the load resistance for which there would be the maximum amount of power transfer from the source to the load.

To verify this theorem, I have taken Vth as 10V and Rth as 5K ohms connected in series with the load resistance RL. Now I am varying the RL to get the maximum power

For doing this I have written a python program and plotted the graph power(mW) vs RL(Kohms)

# Maximum power transfer thorem using pyplot

from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

Rth = 5e3

Vth = 10

RL = [x*1e3 for x in range(21) if x >0]

Vth_across_RL = [res/(Rth+res) for res in RL ]

I = [Vth*1e3/(Rth+res) for res in RL]

def power(Vtholtage_list,current_list):

power_list = []

for i in range(len(Vtholtage_list)):

p = Vtholtage_list[i]*current_list[i]

power_list.append(p)

return power_list

#print(power(Vth_across_RL, I))

power_list =[x*1e3  for x in power(Vth_across_RL, I)]

RL_kohms = [x/1e3 for x in RL]

plt.plot(RL_kohms,power_list)

plt.xlabel(“Resistance in Kohms”)

plt.ylabel(“Power in mW”)

plt.show()

From the graph I observed that when the load resistance (RL) is equal to the Thevenin resistance (Rth) of the circuits then I able to draw the maximum power from the source.

Nudging courtship with life

~Punithan & Poovendiran

“ A choice architect has the responsibility for organising the context in which people make decisions” – Richard H. Thaler, Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness.

In general, Nudging is a choice architecture which is a positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to make a choice or course of action. The idea of Nudging is all about applying the concepts of decision making and behavioural economics to yield a better and spontaneous decision, without limiting the choice. Putting it more straightforwardly, Nudging is helping people in making better choices for oneself without restricting their freedom of choice.

You can nudge for GOOD, or you can nudge for EVIL. Nudging not only contributes to the business world but also for the wellness of the society. Nudging helps to influence and direct people in the right way as we discuss two topics and examples here. 

Social Nudging is the concept of positioning our direction of a nudge for a social cause. When you nudge a person, and if his choice contributes something to society, then it falls under this category. Recently, a 90 years old man was in the limelight on social media. The chat waala opens his ‘Bhaba ka Dhaba’ stall early in the morning and closes it by 5:30 in the evening, finishing all his stock. But during this pandemic, he couldn’t make ends meet. A famous food blogger got concerned about the older man’s dire situation. The food blogger recorded a video of the older man (she fondly calls her Uncle Ji) and posted it on her social handle. Fortunately, many people stepped up to show their support for Uncle Ji. Many celebrities also posted on their social handles. We can see both the food blogger and the stars have nudged the society to contribute something for someone’s good. 

Nudging can be a handy tool in teaching — a hard lesson in the right way. A famous incident became viral on social media. As the incident goes, a teacher intentionally wrote a wrong equation on the blackboard. Students started to laugh at the teacher’s mistake. Then, the teacher explained the reason behind it, “You students did not appreciate me when I wrote the correct ones, but you all started to laugh when I made one mistake.” She added “The world is more similar to you; when you do many good things, no one will appreciate you. But when you do one bad thing, people will start to criticise you, and they will forget all the good things you did”. This is behavioural science is related to negativity bias where one tends to have a negativity dominance and tend to emphasise on that. Mistakes are a never-ending part of our life. We should  improve ourselves from those mistakes. The teacher nudged an important message into those students’ minds – to be mindful, determined and confident in their life. 

SET GAME

~Kalai & Sundar

In this project a big challenge for me was handling the objects between two backdrops. Initially I set the flag event for twenty-seven objects. It became an issue with debugging. After that I was aware that to use minimal amount of flag event. The second issue was, to hide the object using the broadcast event, it hid all the other objects and I was not able to proceed further. Then I learnt how to show and hide the object using the local variable between two backdrops. The next issue was while moving the object from one page to another it went behind the circle, from this I had learnt about the usage of (go to front and back layer) block in Looks. After fixing these issues I felt happy. Sanjeev helped me whenever I was struck.

From this project I have learnt about
how and when to use conditional blocks like if, repeat, forever, and wait.
how to apply local and global variable.
how to make a list and assign the list values to the variable.
how to set the mouse position.
how scratch compares the variable and gives the result.
how to use the flag event.
Show and hide the sprite between two background using the variable.
how to avoid repetitions of the code and make it simple

This game works based on the set theory.
It contains three different sets represented as Venn circles (shape, Inside color, outside color) and twenty-seven objects.
You select the object based on their inside color, border color and shape and place it on the Venn diagram.
The object moves to the mouse track.
Press space key for positioning the object on the circle.
If you place the object in the correct position it tells correct and stay in the circle, if it is wrong, it back to its position.
If you win this game, it will switch to home page.

INCORPORATING ARTS WITH STEM; THE AI(ART INTEGRATED) STREAM LEARNING

~Sunil & Abilash

Integrating Science, Technology, Research, Engineering, Art, and Math to create holistic learning is called STREAM education. The Art Integrated (AI) education includes both visual arts (paintings, clay modelling, gaming) and performing arts (music, dance, drama).  It’s very important to incorporate kids in all of these five disciplines. If we seed these skills in our kids, it improves their practical thinking. Integrating art and science in education could increase their creative thinking and cognitive ability. It also encourages students to express science in unimaginable ways. AI-based education paves the path for experiential learning. Some of the activities to incorporate art with science are 

1. PENDULUM PAINTING

Pendulum painting is a fun activity to do with students using simple materials like water bottles, paper, paint, rope and chairs. This activity enhances creative and critical thinking among students. It will make them understand parameters like gravity, motion, momentum, and velocity. Students would be able to create a beautiful art along with conducting a pendulum experiment to know the physics behind the pendulum by practical approach.

2. PERIODIC TABLE SONG 

Teaching Periodic Table songs to kids is one of the best ways to make chemistry enjoyable. Songs have always been the best ways to remember even the most convoluted set of words at ease. The periodic table song with a supporting video that has a picture of the applications of some aspects along with music, would enable students to remember the elements of the periodic table along with applications. These kinds of activity aid both the right and left brain to store accurate information and retain it.

3. ART FROM WASTE IN SCIENCE

Plastic Pollution has become a significant concern in today’s world. This activity of making simple electronic devices like a LED torch using plastic wastes would make students learn simple electronics along with hands-on training. Making art out of garbage would enhance creativity and positive thinking in students and also would create awareness about plastic pollution.

There are no limits in education and imagination; we can use our creativity to incorporate any form of art with any science concept to bring out the best in education. Other activities like dancing or acting in a theatrical play relating science or math concepts, could cultivate expression, self-confidence, presentation skill along with understanding STEM.

Experiential Learning (Joyful Learning of Mathematics)

Experiential Learning (Joyful Learning of Mathematics):

  • Experiential learning activities will be students-centered/ focused, the learning outcomes of experiential learning are flexible and open.
  • In experiential learning, the aim is to develop knowledge and skills.
  • Before asking children to solve a particular question ask them the right questions which make them think. The questions should be relevant and it should make sense to them.
  • Visualizing problems will help children in understanding faster way. For example.

“Good teaching is more a giving of the right questions than a giving of right answers”

How to make math class more interesting:

  • Make it meaningful(asking right questions)
  • Start with interesting real-life problems.
  • Use concrete relatable examples(relevant examples that help them to image the real-life incident).
  • Encourage creativity and ownership.